The two-letter inscription "OX" ("oxydiert" in German, "oxidized" in English) means artificial darkening of the silver surface to a grey colour. French solid silver tends to use symbols and initials for identification, rather than numbers. Silver Makers Marks come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Backstamping Marking a piece of silver with the retailer’s mark-not the maker. Diana head mark, number at left indicates silver purity, 3 =.800. A widespread mark, Vtg German Silverplate Demitasse Spoon 90-18. Tray. The one pictured, however, is a German.800 silver mark, depicting a crown and crescent moon along with the maker's mark of WTB-for manufacturer Wilhelm Binder. The size of the oval is 1.8 mm x 2.8 mm. put in a partly-dashed arch. This WMF branch was mostly importing the until 1886. It consists of the one-word inscription "GEISLINGEN" of 6.6-6.7 mm length, made by a "sans serif" font and put in a rectangular frame. No silvering designations were used together with this mark. Therefore, I can conclude that the first ostrich mark appeared in 1903 and was used until 1910. The size of the arch varies between 1.2 mm x 1.8 mm and 2.3 mm x 3.5 mm. The size of the "I/O" box varies between 1.9 mm x 2.3 mm and 2.2 mm x 2.6 mm. Geislingen), which is in turn placed in a dashed It varies between 2.9 mm x 3.9 mm and 4.5 mm x 6.4 mm. For this reason, the plate will eventually wear down to the base metal with extensive use. Remember that marks for particular companies changed throughout the years. MacAcke doesn´t claim to know the truth. dismantled and its equipment was incorporated into the The size of the "OX" box varies between 1.7 mm x 2.0 mm and 2.1 mm x 2.5 mm. consists of the image of a running ostrich put inside The size of the box with six-petal rosette is 2.3 mm x 2.4 mm. Just recently, I have noticed that the marks of all my items purchased in the UK use a three-letter WMF inscription, made with a "serif" font. The size of the "ALPACCA" box is 1.2 mm x 6.3 mm. price and quality of each item and serves as self-promotion for objects of tableware and domestic utensils and mentions the base-metal items from Geislingen, performing silver-plating and After 1925 the "NS " designation is made with a "sans serif " font. Rare. A full mark for this pattern inscription and after it are also present. The 13 indicates silver purity, 13/16 lothig or .813, year 1753. All the inscriptions are made both with "serif" (rarely) or "sans serif" fonts and sometimes are put in a cartouche. Returning home, I looked through the (Electroplated Nickel Silver) and EPBM(Electroplated Britannia Metal), the most common names attributed to silver plate … The letter at top indicates town, A = Vienna, year 1857. only 40 US dollars for this set and I immediately purchased it. The two-letter inscription "MB" means a combined use of both brass (M) and Britannia metal (B) as base metals. The possible the best European Art Nouveau silver-plated products. then selling them in Russia under their own marks, see my recent devoted to silver-plated WMF items. The two-letter inscription "BM" means a combined use of both Britannia metal (B) and brass (M) as base metals. catalogues in three languages. The full "small mark" contains besides above-discussed symbols I/O, OX and as (all given without a rectangular frame), the so-called "antler" mark, developed from the Wurtemberg Coat of Arms and used at around 1900 on nickel silver flatware. the World War in 1914. X. WELLNER, GERMANY This article is devoted to the marks of silver-plated hollow ware (and trays), issued by the August Wellner & Sons foundry in Aue, Saxony and follows my other paper on the history of this company and its heraldry, which is … The one-word inscription "ALPACCA" also refers to the use of nickel silver as a base metal. "M", and "F", sometimes the letters "M" and "F" are The double-letter inscription "gg" is an abbreviation of the German expression "ganz vergoldet", which means "entirely gilded". Silver Plating. If the full mark of the item doesn't contain any silvering mark, that means the object is made solely of base metal. So the production of WMF items with marks from the second group of marks (predecessors of those with ostrich mark) also continued until 1903. Such a discovery made me The number refers to the grams of silver used in the electroplating process. The “90” mark is the silver purity mark. Some of the silverplated flatware or silverware is Extra Plate or A-1 Plate. This ostrich mark was developed to mark export goods made for France. Fork. note; (both marks are sometimes combined, as in the illustrated Christofle example) Plate. a "sans serif" font. This occured partly as a consequence of World Economic Crisis and the following disappearance of silver-plated tableware fashion. At the same time the export ware is often accompanied by a shortened factory name. The export WMF hollow ware marks used between 1880 and 1903 are included in the fourth group. Whatever happens, it is always for the best! In my opinion, after 1914 the export to France was stopped due to obvious reasons and after that this mark was applied to the goods made from non-ferrous metals and their alloys, like copper, brass, nickel, etc. The full "small mark" contains also the inscription "WMF" in italics and silvering mark "I/O". The size of the "BM" box is about 1.6 mm x 4.2 mm. extremely popular among western antiques collectors. The full mark uses numerous secondary markings, most of them (older ones) are applied in a rectangular frame. This mark is discussed in detail in the accompanying paper on WMF cutlery marks. At the same time, other They are discussed in detail in my accompanying paper on WMF cutlery mark. Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks and Hallmarks. English WMF catalogue were published in 1900, 1906 and in 1910. Older marks are made with a "serif" font and put in a cartouche. the inscription of "WMF"/"G" under the ostrich disappeared. The second group (1886-1903) contains numerous marks with four-letter inscriptions, with dots or without, made with both "serif" (rarely) and "sans serif" fonts and sometimes put in a cartouche. Rare. 4) Very recently, after a decade of continuous search, I finally bought a small beautiful beaker with the first ostrich mark and dated 1903, see the photo above. Originating in Germany, it was used as a less expensive substitute for sterling, primarily in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The production of WMF silver-plated tableware continued until at least 1970. and would also produce items under its own mark. The two-letter inscription EP means "electroplate". For instance, the Ludwigsburg Factory, established in 1763, changed its mark every few years throughout the 18th century. Later I found similar marks in online publications for silver The "M" designation alone was never used at this period. The absence of any base metal designation means the use of brass as a base metal. Thirdly, The size of the "O" rhombus is between 1.5 mm x 2.6 mm and 1.9 mm x 2.9 mm. varies between 2.3 mm x 3.9 mm and 2.2 mm x 4.0 mm. Very rare. The length of WMFN inscription is 3.4-3.9 mm. Sep 20, 2016 - Explore Patricia Meisels's board "Pottery Marks - German Porcelain. The size of the arch varies between 1.4 mm x 1.8 mm and 2.1 mm x 3.0 mm. WMF is the abbreviation for Württembergische monograph of Annette Denhardt [1], and did not find anything Silverplate has a coating of silver over a metal base that is not silver. The silver-plated products with such a mark are very rare. Schauffler & Safft), situated near Stutgart in Württemberg, and In 1886, WMF bought the Russian company of Roman Plewkiewicz The "84 Gr." also the mark found on my "Hungarian" tea glass holders. The size of the "as" box varies between 1.9 mm x 2.3 mm and 2.2 mm x 2.6 mm. The size of this box is about 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm. English Silver Makers Marks Explained. Get the best deals on Antique German Silver when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. Please treat the information on this page as guidance. If Art Nouveau WMF item, issued in around 1900 or later, bears a full mark without any silvering designation, that means it contains no silver and has been made entirely of base metal. The absence of any base metal designations means the use of brass as a base metal. some WMF marks exist which are well known to collectors but varies between 1.7 mm x 2.5 mm and 2.2 mm x 3.3 mm. This mark is a widespread one. Mar 18, 2015 - Explore Sandi Logan's board "Collection of porcelain & pottery makers marks", followed by 390 people on Pinterest. Contrary to the previous group of marks, it consists of a one-word inscription "GEISLINGEN", made by a "sans serif" font and put in a rectangular frame. The markings on the bottom of antique plates exist to identify the manufacturer, country of origin and other details pertaining to the plate's origin. The size of the "NS" box varies between 1.7 mm x 3.2 mm and 2.2 mm x 3.8 mm. In both placed in a rectangle or in an arch. In 1914, the number of employees working only at Geislingen Go to next slide - Shop by Type. The two-letter inscription "as" means In this period, WMF factory used in such cases the standard cutlery mark, namely, the "ostrich" image in rhombus. The silver-plated products with this mark are very rare. It has an extensive database helpful for researching silver marks, hallmarks, trademarks and maker's marks on old silver from around the world, especially those used on vintage and antique sterling along with coin silver. similar to the marks on my Hungarian tea glass holders. year the famous London publisher Dorling Kindersley Ltd. issues If the full mark discussed above uses the "NS" (nickel silver) designation for a base metal [instead of the "N" (Neusilber) symbol], then this mark is the export one and the item with such a mark was produced for sale in the UK or the US. So, a spoon may bear the mark "12 G" or "12 Gr," indicating that 12 g of silver created the item. These two marks were used during a long period of time. The size of the frame for the "convex" antler mark is 1.2 mm x 2.7 mm. technology of galvanic silver deposition, which was first From 1920, WMF introduced the new small mark for silver-plated items, containing a special 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", placed in a rectangle. On this page are listed some fairly common Modern German Pewter Marks. The Art Deco WMF mark, containing the image of the running ostrich in a rhombus, exists in two versions, which differ in the outlook of the ostrich tail and in size. Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, Hallmarks & Makers' Marks Silver Marks ~ Germany • www . 925-1000 . The size of the rhombus varies between 1.8 mm x 2.5 mm and 1.9 mm x 2.7 mm. The one-letter inscription "B" means the use of Britannia metal (tin-based alloy) as a base metal for silver deposition. The one-letter inscription "N" means the use of nickel silver (Neusilber or Alpacca in German) as a base metal for silvering. The length of WMFM, WMFN and WMFB inscriptions varies in the range 3.2-5.6 mm. Being in Veszprém, I visited a local antique shop and It could be the 20 year jubilee of the WMF firm or simply the celebration of the new century. On the other hand, 90 is a standard marking for silver plate, and this is located on the bottom of the spoon's handle. German silversmiths were brought to England by Henry II, and the tradition of English hallmarks originated about 1300 during the Reign of Edward I. Hungarian tea glass holders, that means containing the Such mark contains again a three-letter WMF inscription with dots (mostly) or without, made with a "sans serif" font and put in a rectangular frame. and the model number "345". Metallwarenfabrik, which in English means Wurtemberg Metalware WMF was created in 1880 after the successful merger of two edition of the 1906 English WMF catalogue [3], as well as in the Another combination "N.PL. " Silverplate 8 inch Luncheon Knife German Silver Walter Peter Schlingen WAPETO 90. Such a statement is supported by the following data: contains the inscription composed of three letters, "W", Very common. the British antique market. Finally, in from this group are rare/very rare. I saw a WMF piece on Internet, dated 1909. rectangle. The size of the "N" box is 1.8 mm x 2.0 mm. The "M" designation alone was never used at this period. The dating of marks was made by using dated hollow ware items from my collection (I was lucky to purchase sixteen dated pieces), as well as by the presence/absence of certain stylistic details on these items. Contrary to that, the production of non-ferrous WMF products with this mark continued until 1930. If there is no enough space for marking, then the special "small mark" should be applied. The history of this foundry is well documented [1,2,3]. The WMF silver-plated production made in around 1900-1910 is marks. So the production of WMF items from the third group of marks (predecessors of those with ostrich mark) continued until 1903. At the same time, the majority of the objects from the second group, made in Art Nouveau style and bearing late WMFB marks, were described in the above-mentioned catalogue or in the 1901 catalogue of the Roman Plewkiewicz firm [8]. first group contains the volume designation in While on ebay.com I found rather easily a dozen of pieces with the marks, similar to those on the UK-purchased items, on ebay.de I failed to find any such marks. The length of the "ALPACCA" word is 5.6-5.8 mm. Alaska Silver A base metal imitating silver-like Nevada Silver or German Silver. The size of the "K" box is 1.5 mm x 1.7 mm. London Date Letters • 1696 - 1935 & Maker's Marks, Birmingham Date Letters • 1773 - 1924 & Maker's Marks, Chester Date Letters • 1701 - 1925 & Maker's Marks, Exeter Date Letters • 1701 - 1883 & Maker's Marks, Newcastle Date Letters • 1702 - 1884 & Maker's Marks, Sheffield Date Letters • 1773 - 1916 & Maker's Marks, York Date Letters • 1559 - 1858 & Maker's Marks, Edinburgh Date Letters • 1681 - 1931 & Maker's Marks, Table of Glasgow Date Letters • 1819 - 1896, Table of Dublin Date Letters • 1700 - 1920. The peculiarity of this mark is a broken "F" letter in the WMF inscription. The fraction "I/O" means the normal thickness of silver That means, the item is made entirely of a base metal. It is an alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc. In the same year the Esslingen factory was 1) I have at my disposal two advertisements, devoted to Argentan-based WMF products, both hollow ware and cutlery (see photos of these ads in accompanied paper on the marks of WMF cutlery). $3.20 shipping. black colour, the so-called "antique silver finish". Read the marks. Christofle (France), August Wellner Soehne (Germany), Arthur Manufacturing marks are key to providing proof of authenticity to any collector of antique items made in Germany. The owner of the shop asked Jan 27, 2021 - Images, information and research on hallmarks / make marks for gold, sterling and silver. It consists of a "fancy" three-letter WMF inscription, put in an oval. ", followed by 158 people on Pinterest. Ritter (A. Ritter & Co.). Finally, the same 2D combination of three letters, "W"", "M", and "F", but placed in an "empty" arch, was used in 1935-1945. reintroduced the image of a running ostrich in a rhombus. an extensive introduction written by renowned German art The famous ostrich mark Rather rare. While it is silvery in color, it contains none of the more valuable metal. Many new comers to the world of collecting Silver often become confused with the large variety of markings on Silver Items. The size of the rectangle varies between 2.0 mm x 2.2 mm and 2.5 mm x 2.6 mm. (Roman Plewkiewicz & Co.) in Warsaw to establish itself on the 925-1000.com is the most extensive internet resource for research of Silver Marks, Hallmarks, Trademarks & Maker's Marks found on Antique and Vintage silver. The third group of WMF hollow ware marks (1898-1903) doesn't contain any three- or four-letter WMF inscriptions. I decided to investigate this point and soon the next seven years, until 1905. though it is rather difficult to find one in perfect In 1897, WMF acquired the Rare. It should be emphasized that these marks are specific for hollow ware items, as the export marks for cutlery are different. sources it was stated that the main WMF mark, used in 1880-1925, However, the proposed mark of Argentan alloy was certainly a kind of gimmick, as Argentan is simply another name for Alpacca or Neusilber. export of silver-plated table ware and domestic items It is widely accepted [2,3], that the choice of the ostrich image for the WMF mark could be explained by the consonance between the name of one of WMF founders (Straub) and the German name of the ostrich (Strauss). It will not polish to the high shine possible with silver alloys. Rather rare. No secondary markings were found for this mark. then the director of this factory, Hans Schauffler, became the This firm also produced very successful Art Nouveau silver-plated items (under the trade name "GALLIA") and, like WMF, used a tin-containing alloy as a base metal for silvering [9,10]. No hundreds of euro or even more. the volume designation in a cartouche. The rectangle with 4-digit "1901" inscription litre corresponds to 1000 You can identify French silver plate by a number alongside a maker's mark. Some secondary markings are used as well, the meaning of "I/O" and "as" designations is explained above. The length of "WMF" The size of the "B" box varies between 1.5 mm x 1.7 mm and 2.3 mm x 2.7 mm. The length of the three-letter WMF inscription varies in the range 4.5-4.9 mm. The length of the WMF inscription is 3.2-3.6 mm. historians. then the full images together with the secondary markings are The letter "N" is the sign for Neusilber (Alpacca), used as a base metal for silvering. Top ~ 1886 - 1922. famous 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and Firstly, there is an absence of a rectangle or an The similar mark was used on numerous WMF kitchen ware (in German Küchengeschirr) products, made of non-ferrous metals without any silvering. continuously grew, which is testified by the publishing of WMF Beautiful and very rare! If the full mark of the item doesn't contain any silvering mark, then such an object is made solely of base metal. This supposition is justified by the dated WMF objects collected by me and possessing such a mark; they are dated 1910, 1914, 1916, 1920 and 1925. The same 2D combination of these three letters, placed in a partly dashed arch, was turned to account as the main mark for silver-plated items for next five years. What was much less known (or simply ignored) is that the ostrich mark looks very similar to the goat mark, which was used in 1888-1932 by the famous French foundry "Manufacture de l'Alfenide". Such mark contains again a three-letter WMF inscription with dots or without (preferentially), but contrary to previous mark made with a "serif" font and put in a rectangular frame. After that, I decided to look through the WMF pieces selling today at ebay.com [wmf art nouveau silver plate, 550 items] and ebay.de [wmf jugendstil versilbert, 1400 items]. 925-1000 . same 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", On the bottom of each item there was a three-letter mark "W.M.F." All inscriptions are made with Every huge Russian market. In both cases the plated metal is nickel. Another two-letter inscription "NS" means nickel silver (Alpacca, Neusilber) and serves as a designation of a base metal for silvering. A rarer (and more recent) variety with the ostrich making a larger step exists. Krupp Berndorf (Austria-Hungary) are not mentioned at all. The illustrated mark is that of the Shanghai retail silversmith Luen Wo [LW] and the artisan silversmith who went under the name “Zhou”. This is silverplate, not sterling silver. next WMF managing director (in 1898) and kept this position for I also possess in my collection a number of WMF pieces, bearing the ostrich mark and dated 1904 (twice), 1907 (twice) and 1910. Inside this book two whole pages are products, designed in fashionable Art Deco style, WMF The first group of WMF marks or Best Offer. The correctness of the dating is justified by the fact that most of the items bearing the WMF marks from the first group or early WMFM ones from the second group were issued before the appearance of Art Nouveau style (before 1895) and, in line with this, were not mentioned at all in the 1906 WMF catalogue [3]. The size of the arch The two-letter inscription "as" means artificial darkening of the silver surface to a nearly black colour, the so-called "antique silver finish". The presented, after that each secondary marking is illustrated Note the use of a fraction for designation. Finally, the six-petal rosette probably means "Special order" or "Special issue". The next WMF mark contains a 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", put in a rectangle. because these tableware and household items are considered as In this case, the secondary marks are never used. turned down. three-letter inscription "WMF", with or without dots, and in The The reason for such artificial darkening is that the WMF pieces were often issued together with glass inlets (e.g., centrepieces for the table), or were used with the glass (e.g., tea glass holders), and the darkened silver coating goes perfectly with the glass. com • The size of the "MB" box is about 2.2 mm x 3.5 mm. corresponds to the year of issue. on brass). "F", placed in an empty arch. Göppingen factory of nickel-plated wares (Metallwarenfabrik Nevertheless, the WMF foundry focussed its efforts on other products, e.g., stainless steel tableware, and survived this hard time. in 2005. Vienna foundry of silver-plated wares, Albert Köhler & Cie. 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