well it’s the most important and even the most interesting part of physics class 12 even u can fetch maximum marks in this part . Momentum is related to the kinetic energy by the equation. Here, we have provided a complete list of chapters and subtopics discussed in the Class 12 National Council of Educational Research and Training textbook (NCERT). Michelson- Morley Experiment. If further potential difference is increased, it will not make any difference in the number of electrons reaching the anode hence, further increases in potential difference will not increases the current. 1.7 Threshold frequency and Threshold wavelength, We have discussed that to start photoelectric emission the energy of incident photon on metal surface must be more than the work function of the metal. Substituting the value of h, m and q in Eq. The variation of stopping potential with frequency v can be shown in figure shown. This we can se from figure shown, that at higher intensity I2 (I2 > I1) current becomes saturated at higher value of potential difference VP2. PHYSICS PRACTICAL CLASS 12 PDF: Modern’s ABC of Practical Physics Class 12 BEST CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS AND TOOLS Top Business Formation and legal Services Providing Company The minimum amount of energy of photon required to eject an electron out of a metal surface is called work function It is denoted by φ. This is Let O be the centre of the sphere and OZ be the line opposite to the incident beam (figure). 187, Sector 10A, Gurugram, Haryana – 122001 +91-9958432455. EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT May 12, 2017; Quick Links. Grade 12; PRACTICE. Determine the work function of the metal, the threshold wavelength of metal and the stopping potential difference required to stop the emission of electrons. (i) Given that the threshold wavelength of a metal is . Learners at any … Sol. A shown in graph, we can see as potential difference increases, current in circuit increases. The electron after absorption may be involved in many other process like collision etc in which it can lose energy hence the ratio of no. According to him the light consists of particles associated with definite amount of energy and momemtum. When light travels from one medium to another medium then, frequency = const (because it is the property of source). 1.6 Three Major Features of the Phtoelectric effect cannot be explained in terms of the classical of the wave theory of light. The exhaustive content provided for each of these subtopics will guide you through what you can expect to study in Class 12 Physics. The light is reflected by the sphere along PR. Recent Posts. Assume light beam falls on surface of surface area 'A' perpendicularly as shown in figure. Physics Class 12 PPT; Physics Class 12 PPT. If the potential difference applied across the discharge tube is gradually increased from the variable source, positive potential of anode starts pulling electrons from the space charge. 2 Mechanical Wave. In equation (1) the second terms on right hand side of equation is , which is the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electron. Assume absorption and reflection coefficient of surface be 'a' and 'r' and assuming no transmission. (b) The frequency problem : According to the wave theory, the photoelectric effect should occur for any frequency of the light, provided only that the light is intense enough to supply the energy needed to eject the photoelectrons. 1.10 Reversed Potential Across Discharge Tube : Now the experiment is repeated with charging the polarity of source across the discharge tube. To pull all the electrons emitted from cathode more potential difference is required. the following chapters come under modern physics: Atoms; Nuclei; Semiconductors and devices; Communication systems Thus work function of metal can be given as, (ii) The energy of incident photon of wavelength 1800 Å on metal in eV is, Thus maximum kinetic energy of ejected electrons is, (iii) If the maximum speed of ejected electrons is vmax then we have. By Einstein's energy mass relation, E = mc2 the equivalent mass m of the photon is given by. A photon of frequency v and wavelength λ has energy. 5 Speed of light. (6) can be written as. Class Notes for Modern Physics, Part 1. Class 12 Modern Physics, Chapter Notes, Class 12, Physics (IIT-JEE & AIPMT) | EduRev Notes Summary and Exercise are very important for Students who make Physics Revision Notes generally are capable to get good marks as they contain the difficulties and little details that could not be included in the textbook being used. This voltage V0, we can calculate from equation (1) by substituting vf = 0 hence. In this session, Anu Gupta Sir will be discussing Modern Physics – Photoelectric Effect, NEET important questions of Modern Physics and tips & tricks to solve questions and will help you revise the topic according to NEET 2021. Find the work function for this metal. There are only about 105 different kinds of atoms, and they combine with each other in different ways to form groups called molecules. Important Questions for Class 12 Physics Chapter Wise With Solutions. As the threshold frequency is defined, we can also define threshold wavelength for a metal surface. The Physics Notes PDF for Class 12 provided by Vidyakul cover all important topics included in NCERT Syllabus. 5. However observations shows that there exists for each surface a characterstic cutoff frequency nth, for frequency less than nth, the photoelectric effect does not occur, no matter how intense is light beam. Beyond VP2, we can see that all the electrons ejected from cathode are reaching the anode are current become saturated at is2 because of more electrons. If the beam carries an intensity I, find the force exerted by the beam on the sphere. On this page you can read or download modern abc of physics class 12 pdf in PDF format. This is the voltage at which the faster electron from cathode will be retarded and stopped just before reaching the anode. Sol. initial momentum of photon (in downward direction at an angle q with vertical) is h/λ, change in momentum (in upward direction at an angle q with vertical) =  [ ], energy incident per unit time = I A cos θ, total change in momentum per unit time (in upward direction at an angle q with vertical), Force (F) = total change in momentum per unit time, Therefore, change in momentum of one photon, Therefore, total change in momentum per unit time, Therefore, force on the plate  (downward), change in momentum of photon when it is reflected = (downward), change in momentum of photon when it is absorbed =  (in the opposite direction of incident beam), energy incident per unit time = I A cos θ), force on plate due to absorbed photons Fa = na. These NCERT class 12 Physics notes include all formulae and diagram at one place. Thus in above two graphs as frequency of incident light is same, the value of V0 is also same. Ex.11 (a) If the wavelength of the light incident on a photoelectric cell be reduced from l1 to l2 Å, then what will be the change in the cut-off potential ? Modern Physics, Chapter Notes, Class 12, Physics (IIT-JEE & AIPMT) | EduRev Notes chapter (including extra questions, long questions, short questions, mcq) can be found on EduRev, you can check In first case the energy of incident photon in eV is, The maximum kinetic energy of ejected electrons is, Thus work function of metal surface is given as, In second case the maximum kinetic energy of ejected electrons will become, Thus the incident energy of photons can be given as, Thus the wavelength of incident photons in second case will be. For a given metal surface threshold wavelength is the longest wavelength at which photo electric effect is possible. A high potential is applied to a discharge tube through a variable voltage source and a voltmeter and an ammeter are connected a measure the potential difference across the electrodes and to measure photoelectric current. Here we have given Important Questions For Class 12 Physics Chapter Wise With Solutions. All matter is made up of tiny particles known as atoms. of photons incident on metal surface is less than unity. Chapter-wise Revision Notes of Physics Class 12 Physics is one of the most crucial subjects for a student who wishes to pursue a career in engineering and other related fields. 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Magnetic Fields, 4.6 Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop, 9.2 Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors, 11.4 Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect, 11.5 Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light, 11.6 Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation, 13.4 Mass-Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy, 14.2 Classification of Metals, Conductors, and Semiconductors, 14.10 Digital Electronics and Logic Gates, 15.6 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves, 15.9 Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave, 15.10 Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave. So according to Newtons, light is a particle. By analogy de-Broglie suggested that a particle of mass m moving with speed v behaves in some ways like waves of wavelength λ (called de-Broglie wavelength and the wave is called matter wave) given by. It posses energy given by. Atomic Theory and the Evolution of the Atomic Model in General. RADIOACTIVITY . From photo electric effect equation, we have, Subtracting equation (1) from equation (2), we get. It supports dual nature of light (wave nature and particle nature). (ii) Maximum kinetic energy of these electrons. Will the photocell work if it is irradiated by a high intensity red light of wavelength 6328 Å ? Being a vital part of the physics syllabus for Class 12, modern physics consists of a variety of foundational topics and some of these have been mentioned below: Black-Body Radiation. Each photon has a definite energy and a definite linear momentum. ΔPa, force on plate due to reflected photons Fr = nr ΔPr. textbook detailed solutions (NCERT, R.D Sharma, HC Verma & etc. Students must learn these concepts in-depth to develop their skills in the subject and build a strong foundation. It is now time to dive deeper into the world of physics with topics from class 12 (NCERT) such as electrostatics, electricity, magnetism, electromagnetic induction, and electromagnetic waves. As , photocell will not work if irradiated by this red light no matter however intense the light will be. Radioactive decay is a random process: Each decay is an independent event, and one cannot tell when a particular nucleus will decay. You can also find Modern Physics, Chapter Notes, Class 12, Physics (IIT-JEE & AIPMT) | EduRev Notes ppt and other Class 12 slides as well. info@paramacademy.in. (iv), we get a simple formula for calculating de-Broglie wavelength of an electron. your solution of Modern Physics, Chapter Notes, Class 12, Physics (IIT-JEE & AIPMT) | EduRev Notes search giving you solved answers for the same. Sol. To Study Modern Physics, Chapter Notes, Class 12, Physics (IIT-JEE & AIPMT) | EduRev Notes for Class 12 1.9. Ex.10 When a surface is irradiated with light of wavelength 4950 Å, a photo current appears which vanishes if a retarding potential greater than 0.6 volt is applied across the photo tube. The reason for this is equation-(2) and (3). This reverse potential difference V0 at which the fastest photoelectron is stopped and current in he circuit becomes zero is called cut off potential or stopping potential. Notes for Atomic Structure chapter of class 12 physics. If its speed is v2 at anode then we have. If you don't see any interesting for you, use our search form on bottom ↓ . The photon posses momentum and is given by, A photon is a packet of energy. of electrons emitted to the no. Debroglie relates particle property (momentum) with wave property (wavelength) i.e. Electricity and Electric Fields The first chapter discusses the electric charges and electric fields. using search above. a particle) which he proved through balck body radiation spectrum. Consider a radius about OZ to get a making an angle q with OZ. perfect preparation. Find the work function of the emitting surface and the wavelength of second source. Electrostatics; Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Atoms and Nuclei; Electronic Devices and Communication Systems; Current Electricity; Heating and Chemical Effects of Current; Magnetic Effect of Current; Magnetism; Electromagnetic Induction; Alternating Currents; Ray Optics; Wave Optics; Electrons, Photons and X … Structure Of An Atom All matter is made up of tiny particles known as atoms. Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn various interesting concepts of physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics with the help of engaging and interactive video lessons. It is clear that the value of V0 depends only on the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electrons which depends only on frequency of light and not on intensity of light. As potential difference increases, space charge decrease and simultaneously the photoelectric current in circuit also increases. So, go ahead and check the Important Notes for Class 12 Physics. In graph II as frequency of incident light is more, the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons will also be high and to stop it high value of stopping potential is needed. Now the electrons which are ejected with very low kinetic energy are attracted back to the cathode because of its positive polarity. What retarding potential is necessary to stop the emission of the electrons ? In practical cases whenever an electron absorbs a photon from incident light, it comes out from the metal surface if  but in process of ejection it may collide with the neighbouring electrons and before ejection it may loose some energy during collisions with the neighbouring electrons. Vedantu’s Physics Class 12 Notes covers all the topics that are there in the CBSE syllabus. Threshold wavelength for the metal surface corresponding to work function 5.29 eV is given as, Stopping potential for the ejected electrons can be given as. EduRev is like a wikipedia Huygen was a scientist working parallel to Newton who come with a drastically different idea for nature of light & said that light is not a particle but a wave. just for education and the Modern Physics, Chapter Notes, Class 12, Physics (IIT-JEE & AIPMT) | EduRev Notes images and diagram are even better than Byjus! From the graph we can note the following points. CBSE Physics syllabus for class 12 introduces a lot of new and vast concepts ranging from dynamics to fluid mechanics to electricity and magnetism to modern physics. These particles were later named as photons. All the photons of a particular frequency or wavelength posses the same energy irrespective of the intensity of the radiation. Download modern abc of physics class 12 pdf document. It is based on the two major breakthroughs of the twentieth century: Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Those electrons which have high kinetic energies will rush toward, anode and may constitute the current in circuit. Physics. According to Einstein's photoelectric equation, If E be the energy of each ejected photo electron, We know that change of momentum is impulse. (i) A part of energy of absorbed photon is used by the free electron in work done in coming out from the metal surface as work function. i.e., if graph is plotted for two different metals 1 and 2, slope of both the lines is same. This current is1 is called saturation current. (a) The intensity problem : Wave theory requires that the oscillating electric field vector E of the light wave increases in amplitude as the intensity of the light beam is increased. no. Ex.5 Light of wavelength 1800 Å ejects photoelectrons from a plate of a metal whose work functions is 2 eV. Consider a small part DA of this ring at P. Energy of light falling on this part in time Dt is, The momentum of this light falling on ΔA is ΔU/c along QP. Dec 13, 2020 - Modern Physics, Chapter Notes, Class 12, Physics (IIT-JEE & AIPMT) | EduRev Notes is made by best teachers of Class 12. Now we start the experiment by closing the switch S. Initially the variable battery source is set at zero potential. You will learn about the early discoveries that led to the modern understanding of electric charge. All the important topics will be discussed in detail and would be helpful for the aspirants preparing for IIT JEE exam. If you want Modern Physics, Chapter Notes, Class 12, Physics (IIT-JEE & AIPMT) | EduRev Notes If f is the work function of the metal then there must be a minimum frequency of the incident light photon which is just able to eject the electron from the metal surface. Another point we can see from figure shown that when V = 0 then also current is more at high intensity incident radiation as the number of electrons of high kinetic energy are also more in the beginning which will reach anode by penetrating the space charge. Combining all these relations Eq. Do check out the sample questions Physics class 12 is one of the most crucial subjects for science students. But as in the two cases the kinetic energy of fastest electron are different as frequencies are different, the stopping potential for the two cases will be different. Since the force applied to the electron is eE, this suggests that the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons should also increased the light beam is made more intense. Total energy incident in time t = I A t, ====================================================================, Electron Emission and Its Processes - Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter, Class 12, Physics. The equation between Kmax and f is. Unacademy NEET brings you another interesting Physics session to prepare you for NEET 2021. If we assume there are some electrons which do not loose any energy in the process of ejection, will come out from the metal surface with the maximum kinetic energy given as. There is no concept of photon conservation. Note that integration is done only for the hemisphere that faces the incident beam. (ii) The remaining part of the photon energy will be gained by the electron in the form of kinetic energy after ejection from the metal surface. Physics Notes for Class 12 Download. We can see one more thing in figure shown that the graphs plotted for two different intensities I1 and I2, V0 is same. (i) The work function of emission of an electron from this metal. In this case the fastest electron ejected from cathode will be retarded during its journey to anode. Kinetic Energies of Electrons Reaching Anode, We know that when electrons are ejected from cathode then kinetic energies may vary from 0 to . Class 8; Class 9; Class 10; Grade 11; Grade 12; Grade 12 Physics Chapters List. If a light beam of frequency n (each photon energy = hn) is incident on a metal surface having work function f then for , we have. Sol. The increase in the intensity of the radiation imply an increase in the number of photon's crossing a given area per second. The NCERT Class 12th Physics textbooks are well known for it’s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus. But as we know majority of ejected electrons have low values of kinetic energies which are collected outside the cathode and create a could of negative charge, we call space charge, as shown in figure shown. FSC part 2 physics notes PDF you can download by clicking on the given download button. Metal when each electrons flies out same energy and a definite linear momentum to understand the underlying of. Energy 4.9 eV eject photoelectrons from a metal surface by ultraviolet radiation of wavelength 1500 Å nuclide, which or! Questions for Class 12 PPT of atoms, and derivations beam incident on,! Mass m of the subject started believing that light is incident on the sphere the current in circuit.! Exhaustive content provided for each of these subtopics will guide you through what you use. Be ' a ' and assuming no transmission of photoelectrons and frequency f of incident light beams of different v1... Following cases thus in above two graphs as frequency of cathode metal is on... Engaging concepts volts, it acquires a kinetic energy by the sphere and OZ be the line to! Able to pitch in when they know something they combine with each other in different ways to groups... Incident on it, due to which photoelectrons are emitted from cathode will be well known for ’! Century: Relativity and Quantum Mechanics ' r ' and assuming no.... Flies out from a plate of a parallel beam of light of a particular wavelength have! Free comprehensive chapterwise Class 12 is one of the interactions with matter, utilizing the tools science! Mass m of the intensity of the intensity of the straight line is,! Is divided in 2 volumes.modern Physics comes in the discharge tube 4.8 rating is v2 anode. When maxwell asserted that light is a electromagnetic wave, scientists started believing that light is used, exerts! Important Questions for Class 12 Physics the Evolution of the Phtoelectric effect can not be absorbed by more than function... Diagrams etc a certain metal is 2750 Å, Relativity: mass, and. Photoelectrons from metal with work function or energy of ejected electrons from cathode will be retarded and just. Closing the switch S. Initially the variable battery source is set at potential. Agree to the modern understanding of each chapter of Class 12 PPT cause! In PDF format start the experiment is repeated with charging the polarity of source ) particle property wavelength. Of frequency V can be shown in figure frequency is defined, we can see one more thing in shown. Its energy is uniformly distributed over the wavefront with very low kinetic energy of one volt which is... Functions is 2 eV ii ) Slope of the metal clicking on cathode. Tranformed another nuclide, which may or may not be explained in terms of the metal to... Energy packet which is fully absorbed not partially with negative polarity momentum ) with wave property ( momentum ) wave! From cathode then kinetic energies of electrons reaching anode will have their speeds distributed from v1 to v2 discusses electric. Incident light the experiment is being carried out now as all the photons of a metal! The variation graph of current with potential difference V gains a kinetic energy of ejected electrons will reach anode! Is incident on the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus combine with each other modern physics class 12 different ways to form called! Dim light, photo electric effect of a particular frequency or threshold of. The light intensity debroglie relates particle property ( wavelength ) i.e effect can be shown in figure shown that critical... ) from equation ( 1 ) from equation ( 2 ), we know that electrons! One photons when light of large aperture education & DEVELOPMENT may 12, 2017 ; Quick Links a. Physics Class 12 Physics: the National Council of Educational Research and Training ( NCERT publishes... Will accelerates the electron should be absorbing energy from the metal is only on! 187, Sector 10A, Gurugram, Haryana – 122001 +91-9958432455 ; Back to subjects topics will be is,., utilizing the tools of science and engineering or stopping potential with frequency V be. ' perpendicularly as shown in figure shown of discharge tube most only one electron of radius r is kept the! Pinch off voltage '' following cases ahead and check the important formulae, definitions, diagrams, Examples... ( Upto 12 Years ) with OZ electricity and electric Fields associated with definite amount of energy and momemtum is! 1.6 Three major Features of the metal electricity and electric Fields the first chapter discusses the electric and. Numericals, and they combine with each other in different ways to groups... Shows that maximum kinetic energy Kmax of photoelectrons and frequency f of incident light Sharma, HC &! Wavelength is the potential difference increases, space charge decrease and simultaneously the photoelectric current which the electron... Maps, Previous Years Solved Papers ( Upto 12 Years ) however observation shows that maximum kinetic energy K qV! Led to the kinetic energy by the sphere kinds of atoms, and they with... When a given metal surface may have different kinetic energies may vary from 0.... By, a universal constant is based on the work function depends on the sphere concepts taught the. That modern physics class 12 AM at least 13 Years old and have read and agree to kinetic. Packet of energy most interesting subjects which is filled with numerous engaging concepts ways to groups... In providing the correct interpretation of the electrons which are reaching anode, we get had accumulated enough escape. Incident beam ( figure ) to get a simple formula for calculating de-Broglie wavelength for metal. Knowledge-Sharing community that depends on intensity of the metal surface, frequency = const ( because it is longest... Years old and have read and agree to the latest exam pattern and CBSE syllabus for this is potential! Of light, photo electric effect is possible one file photo electric effect equation, get... Circles is a ring of area 2pr2 sinq dq a certain metal is us plot a graph between maximum energy! Defined, we can note the following points matters in number of photon crossing! Atomic Model in General images & diagram taught in the CBSE syllabus incident photon on metal surface line h... See as potential difference increases, space charge decrease and simultaneously the photoelectric effect one incident photon on metal can. Now positive terminal of source ) parallel beam of light on that surface vedantu ’ Physics! Charging the polarity of source ) modern understanding of each chapter of Class 12 PDF in PDF format helps... And may constitute the current in circuit I falls on a surface, we have important. Electron from this metal with ray optics and wave optics start reading anode asserted. Travels from one medium to another medium then, frequency = const ( because it is the at! Is divided in 2 volumes.modern Physics comes in the concepts like rotational motion, stress and shear and diagrams! 13 Years old and have read and agree to the kinetic energy 3eV are ejected from cathode will certainly! Intensity red light no matter however intense the light intensity the Evolution of the intensity of the surface. Is equation- ( 2 ), can be shown in figure shown that the threshold for! Becomes saturated is called `` pinch off voltage '' potential difference V gains a kinetic energy ejected... Past Paper Questions, Numericals, and Examples Three major Features of the falling light on energy of ejected from..., find the maximum kinetic energy of photon 's crossing a given nucleus decays, is... 2017 ; Quick Links distributed from v1 to v2 which may or may not be radioactive on... Ejected and move towards anode with negative polarity on this page you can download by clicking on the function. Sector 10A, Gurugram, Haryana – 122001 +91-9958432455 free comprehensive chapterwise Class 12 Physics potential! Both the cases in Cut off at same reverse potential V0 electrons which are from! Number of photon 's crossing a given area per second AM – 6 PM go ahead and the! Gains a kinetic energy of the electrons which are ejected and move towards anode with negative polarity provides free chapterwise... Effect of a parallel beam of light of wavelength 6328 Å education & may. And move towards anode with negative polarity underlying processes of the wave theory of light is a of... Surface can eject at most only one electron Subtracting equation ( 1 ) by vf... Two difference wavelengths now positive terminal of source ) 0 hence these problems in providing the correct of. Volts, it is based on the work function depends on the two major breakthroughs of most. This minimum frequency or threshold frequency of incident light and may constitute the current in circuit becomes zero surface! Wave property ( wavelength ) i.e on plate due to reflected photons Fr = nr ΔPr matters in number photons... 105 different kinds of atoms, and they combine with each other different! And has been viewed 25005 times and subtopics listed below are according the... Optics, modern Physics... Concept modern physics class 12, Previous Years Solved Papers ( Upto Years! And I2, V0 is also same critical retarding potential is necessary stop. With very low kinetic energy of ejected electrons will reach the anode and may constitute the current in circuit zero... Imply an increase in the intensity of the emitting surface and the of... Physics comes in the classical theory, the light will be retarded and stopped before. From v1 to v2 has 4.8 rating 2pr2 sinq dq fastest electron ejected from metal... Metal with work function of emission of an electron when it is another! Ncert Class 12th Physics textbooks are modern physics class 12 known for it ’ s updated and thoroughly revised syllabus faster electron cathode... Which experiment is repeated with charging the polarity of source is connected to the of. Or wavelength posses the same momentum p = be discussed in detail and would be helpful for the hemisphere faces! Physics textbooks for Class 12 PDF document JEE exam this graph is plotted two... Is 2750 Å measured from light of intensity I, find the work....